For all chemical current sources in modern technology well known that with an increasing in the discharge level (especially below 50% of the capacity) crystal-like hardly soluble discharge products are formed in the composition of the surface and deep layers of the active mass of the plates. The more such formations accumulate in the active mass then more difficult to charge fully the battery which may lead to hardly predictable failures in the operation of the storage battery when the standard load is connected.
Attempts to solve this problem by conducting a preliminary deep discharge and then a full charge with an impulse current or by the other well known methods of charging were failed.
One of the main reason for such failures was the fact that were not created an appropriate conditions to prevent a rate of race (both of during the discharge and at the initial stage of the charge process) of the voltage step difference between the elements in the storage battery. At the same time it was not envisaged to create favorable conditions for:
- carrying out transformations of the active mass of positive electrode due to which its resistance to destruction and erosion;
- maximum dissolution in the active mass of hardly soluble crystal-like particles of lead sulfate. In this case the appearance of bursts of a high-intensity increase in the magnitude of the polarization voltage at the poles of the storage battery is prevented;
- the minimum possible initial level of the charging voltage at the storage battery poles and the minimum possible intensity of increase in the recharge voltage at the first stage of charging as the most favorable conditions for the complete dissolution of especially difficult to dissolve large crystalline accumulations of discharge products while the appearance of bursts high-intensity heating and gas contamination of the storage battery is prevented.
In general if the above conditions can be provided then the charging process will take place at the highest possible efficiency of the charging current.
In this case the highest volumetric porosity of the active mass and the maximum possible (for a given state of the elements in the storage battery composition) delivered capacity of the currently charged storage battery will be achieved.
Due to the fact that with this order of charging the minimum possible excess of the charging voltage over the level of the electromotive force of the storage battery takes place and it is also possible to significantly reduce the intensity of electrochemical corrosion wear of the battery cells that occur with each charge.
Due to this very order of regular maintenance of storage battery it is possible to significantly increase the resource reserve of reliable (failure-free) operation of any known lead-acid storage-battery.
The above procedure is implemented when using intellectual automatic charging and discharge device (IACDD) of the type BZVM-4 / 12-4-D the algorithm of which is based on:
- Method of forming charge and diagnostic of new 12-volt lead-acid batteries;
- Method of carrying out of recovery maintenance of 12-volt lead-acid batteries of all known types and options of their application.
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