Let’s consider the main reasons for the absence of the possibility to ensure high reliability of the storage battery operation using all currently known methods and means of maintenance of chemical current sources.
The widespread mass application of materials from the recycling of recycled storage battery as raw materials for the manufacture of new batteries leads to the possibility of various impurities, the presence of which according to GOST, DSTU for the production of storage battery is strictly limited or even excluded.
Such position leads to impossibility to provide a normal level of uniformity of initial value of given capacity in one batch of release of the same type accumulator blocks.
During the forming charge and further usage of new accumulator blocks in order to prevent accidental damage to them (e.g., may occur due to even a small overcharge), as a rule, significant undercharge is practiced.
Due to the fact that the new accumulator blocks (all without exception) are undercharged it is not possible to perform their objective diagnostics.
Therefore, when shipped from the manufacturer of a new storage battery in one batch may be the same type of cells with the difference of the original output capacity (which should be determined according to PTE, DSTU after reaching the full charge of each cell) at a level of up to 20% in shares of the nominal capacity (Cnom) and more.
If the cell in the new storage battery is set to be the weakest cell on the plus side and the rest on the minus side in order of increasing the quality level of their characteristics, the new cell will not be able to reliably operate at the maximum possible standard load.
Note: Under the influence of discharge current (standard load) there is a decrease in the value of discharge voltage ∆Ur at the pole terminals of each cell.
When the other conditions being equal ∆Ur depends on the value of the internal resistance (r) of each cell. In this case, the greater the density of discharge current and the longer time of its exposure, the more ∆Ur which may lead to some high level of divergence of Ur values among cells in the storage battery.
The resulting difference in Ur values in the circuit of consecutively connected cells has the property of spontaneously tending to self-destruct causing a high-intensity self-discharge of storage batteries accompanied by a difficult to predict rapid decrease in the discharge voltage at the pole terminals of this battery.
Explanation of the physical meaning of such an event.
At normal load the discharge current in the battery runs from the negative to the positive terminal (from less to more potential).
If there is a difference of Ur the self-discharge current also flows from the battery with a smaller Ur to the battery where Ur is larger. In this connection in the above situation the self-discharge current which increases with the load current will cause a high-intensity increase in the value of resistance to the current of the standard load. Such a situation is fraught with rapid unpredictable emergency failure at normal load at high densities of discharge current.
However, if the same cells will be arranged so that on the plus side of the output there is the strongest battery pack and the rest from the plus to the minus output of storage battery – in descending order of their strength level the vector of self-discharge current will coincide in the direction of the current vector of the standard load. In this way storage battery will operate smoothly until the fullest possible discharge on a regular load is achieved.
It is known that many manufacturers use calcium alloys in order to prevent highly intensive deterioration of mechanical strength of positive plate bearing grids. But the more the above mentioned undesirable impurities are in the active mass the better intensively the level of volumetric porosity decreases and increases the difference between the values of charging/discharging voltage among cells in the storage battery. When servicing such storage batteries there is a highly intensive reduction in the size of the output capacity and difficult predictable failures in the first year of normal use.
In view of the above it is only possible to make an objective assessment of the condition of each cell in the new (or overhauled) storage battery by technical ensurency of the full charge. Installation of cell as part of storage battery taking into account the data of such diagnostics will allow to prevent the failure of storage battery in the first half of its service life.
In order to provide such possibility it is reasonable to apply intelligent automatic charging and discharging devices as an algorithm of which work the methods of forming charge, control discharge, recovery service and diagnostics of lead-acid battery blocks are used.
This method was developed by V. Dankov the inventor-engineer.
V. Dankov’s method is used in the basis of algorithm of work of automatically charge-discharge device type “BZVM-2/12-50-250″, intelligent automatically charge-discharge device Vector-KD- Rv 2/36-190” and
Using such equipment it is possible to carry out restoration maintenance of 12V lead acid storage battery of all known technologies and variants of intended purpose in a range of capacities from 4 to 800 Ah.